The Khanate was also the first state known as "Turk". It eventually collapsed due to a series of dynastic conflicts, but many states and peoples later used the name "Turk". Turkic peoples and related groups migrated west from Turkestan and present-day mongolia towards Eastern Europe, the Iranian plateau and Anatolia (modern Turkey) in many waves. The date of the initial expansion remains unknown. After many battles, they established their own state and later constructed the Ottoman Empire. The main migration occurred in medieval times, when they spread across most of Asia and into europe and the middle east. 72 They also took part in the military encounters of the Crusades. 97 Later Turkic peoples include the karluks (mainly restaurant 8th century uyghurs, kyrgyz, oghuz (or ğuz) Turks, and Turkmens. As these peoples founded states in the area between Mongolia and Transoxiana, they came into contact with Muslims, and most of them gradually adopted Islam.
95 96 In the first half of the first millennium, mass-migrations to distant places were common, geographical borders were fluid and cultural identity was more likely to change dramatically during the lifetime of an individual, relative to the modern era. These factors also made it more likely that the huns were, initially at least, closely related to the turkic peoples. In the 6th century, 400 years after the collapse of northern xiongnu power in Inner Asia, the göktürks assumed leadership of the turkic peoples. Formerly in the xiongnu nomadic confederation, the göktürks inherited their traditions and administrative experience. From 552 to 745, göktürk leadership united the nomadic Turkic tribes into the göktürk Empire on Mongolia and Cental Asia. The name derives from gok, "blue" or "celestial". Unlike its xiongnu predecessor, the göktürk Khanate had its temporary khans from the Ashina clan who were subordinate to a sovereign authority controlled by a council of tribal chiefs. The Khanate retained elements of its original shamanistic religion, tengriism, although it received missionaries of Buddhist monks and practiced a syncretic religion. The göktürks were the first Turkic people to write Old Turkic in a runic script, the Orkhon script.
Turkish, mosins and mausers
The evidence of paternal R1a supports the dissertation kurgan hypothesis for the Indo-european expansion from the volga steppe region. 86 The R1a was found in xiongnu people 86 and the present-day people of Central Asia. 87 Analysis of skeletal remains from sites attributed to the xiongnu provides an identification of dolichocephalic Mongoloid, ethnically distinct from neighboring populations in present-day mongolia. 88 xiongnu writing, older than Turkic, is agreed to have the earliest known Turkic alphabet, the Orkhon script. This has been argued recently using the only extant possibly xiongu writings, the rock art of the yinshan and Helan mountains. 89 It dates from the 9th millennium bce to the 19th century, writing and consists mainly of engraved signs (petroglyphs) and few painted images.
90 Excavations done during in noin-Ula kurgans located in the selenga river in the northern Mongolian hills north of Ulaanbaatar produced objects with over 20 carved characters, which were either identical or very similar to the runic letters of the turkic Orkhon script discovered. 91 The hun hordes ruled by Attila, who invaded and conquered much of Europe in the 5th century, might have been Turkic and descendants of the xiongnu. Some scholars regard the huns as one of the earlier Turkic tribes, while others view them as Proto-mongolian in origin. 94 Linguistic studies by Otto maenchen-Helfen and others have suggested that the language used by the huns in Europe was too little documented to be classified, but may have been an Indo-european language. Nevertheless, many of the proper names used by huns appear to be turkic in origin.
A century later their power had increased such that they conquered the juan juan and established the gök empire. 72 Turkic peoples originally used their own alphabets, like orkhon and Yenisey runiforms, and later the uyghur alphabet. Traditional national and cultural symbols of the turkic peoples include wolves in Turkic mythology and tradition; as well as the color blue, iron, and fire. Turquoise blue (the word turquoise comes from the French word meaning "Turkish is the color of the stone turquoise still used in jewelry and as a protection against the evil eye. It has often been suggested that the xiongnu, mentioned in Han Dynasty records, were Proto-turkic speakers.
Although little is known for certain about the xiongnu language(s it seems likely that at least a considerable part of xiongnu tribes spoke a turkic language. 78 However, some scholars see a possible connection with the Iranian -speaking sakas. 79 Some scholars believe they were probably a confederation of various ethnic and linguistic groups. 80 81 Genetics research in 2003 on skeletons from 2000 year old xiongnu necropolis in Mongolia found some individuals with dna sequences also present in some modern-day turks, suggesting that a turkish component had emerged in the xiongnu tribe at the end of the xiongnu. 82 83 In 2009, archaeologists found Turkic balbals which are 2000 years old. 84 85 According to another archeological and genetic study in 2010, the dna found in three skeletons in 2000-year-old elite xiongnu cemetery in Northeast Asia belonged to C3, D4 and R1a.
The Armenian Alphabet Was Used
69 Turkic people may be related to the xiongnu, dingling and tiele people. According to the book of wei, the tiele people were the remnants of the Chidi the red di people competing with the jin in the Spring and Autumn period. 70 Turkic tribes such as the Khazars and Pechenegs probably lived as nomads for many years before establishing the turkic Khaganate or göktürk Empire in the 6th century. These were herdsmen and nobles hippie who were searching for new pastures and wealth. The first mention of Turks was in a chinese text that mentioned trade between Turk tribes and the sogdians along the silk road. 71 The first recorded use of "Turk" as a political name appears as a 6th-century reference to the word pronounced in Modern Chinese as Tujue. The Ashina clan migrated from li-jien (modern Zhelai zhai ) to the juan juan seeking inclusion in their confederacy and protection from the prevalent dynasty. The tribe were famed metalsmiths and were granted land near a mountain quarry which looked like a helmet, from which they were said to have gotten their name ( tūjué ).for
63 Between 400 ce and the 16th century, byzantine sources use the name σκύθαι ( skuthai ) in reference to twelve different Turkic peoples. 63 In the modern Turkish language as used in the republic of Turkey, a distinction is made between "Turks" and the "Turkic peoples" in loosely speaking: the term Türk corresponds specifically to the "Turkish-speaking" people (in this context, "Turkish-speaking" is considered the same as "Turkic-speaking. However, the proper usage of the term is based on the linguistic classification in order to avoid any political sense. In short, the term Türki can be without used for Türk or vice versa. 64 History Origins and early expansion main articles: Turkic migrations, turkic tribal confederations, and Nomadic empires Further information: xiongnu, huns, and göktürks The top of Belukha in the Altay mountains in Russia is shown here. The mountain range is thought to be the birthplace of the turkic people. Eastern Hemisphere in 500 bce it is generally agreed that the first Turkic people lived in a region extending from Central Asia to siberia, with the majority of them living in China. Historically they were established after the 6th century bce. 68 The earliest separate turkic peoples appeared on the peripheries of the late xiongnu confederation about 200 bce 68 (contemporaneous with the Chinese han Dynasty ).
groups in antiquity whose names could be the original form of "Türk/Türük" such as Togarma, turukha / Turuška, turukku and. But the information gap is so substantial that we cannot firmly connect these ancient people to the modern Turks. Turkologist András Róna-tas posits that the term Turk could be rooted in the east Iranian saka language 50 or in Turkic. 51 However, it is generally accepted that the term "Türk" is ultimately derived from the Old-Turkic migration-term 52 türük / Törük, 53 54 which means "created "born 55 or "strong 56 from the Old Turkic word root *türi- / töri- tribal root, (mythic) ancestry; take. 59 This etymological concept is also related to Old Turkic word stems ' tür ' root, ancestry, race, kind of, sort of ' türi- ' to bring together, to collect ' törü ' law, custom and ' töz ' substance. 53 The earliest Turkic-speaking peoples identifiable in Chinese sources are the dingling, gekun (Jiankun and Xinli, located in south Siberia. 60 61 The Chinese book of Zhou (7th century) presents an etymology of the name turk as derived from "helmet explaining that this name comes from the shape of a mountain where they worked in the Altai mountains. 62 According to persian tradition, as reported by 11th-century ethnographer Mahmud of Kashgar and various other traditional Islamic scholars and historians, the name "Turk" stems from Tur, one of the sons of Japheth (see turan ). During the middle Ages, various Turkic peoples of the eurasian steppe were subsumed under the identity of the " Scythians ".
The most notable modern Turkic-speaking ethnic groups include. Turkish people, azerbaijanis, uzbeks, kazakhs, turkmen and, kyrgyz people. Contents, etymology map from Kashgari's Diwan, showing the distribution of Turkic tribes. The first known mention of the term Turk ( Old Turkic : türük or : kök türük 32 33 Chinese :, old Tibetan : duruggu/durgu (meaning "origin 35 36 Pinyin : Tūjué, middle Chinese ( guangyun tuot-küot ) applied to a turkic group was. A letter by Ishbara qaghan to Emperor Wen of sui in 585 described him as "the Great Turk Khan." 37 The Orhun inscriptions (735 CE) use the terms Turk and Turuk. Previous use of similar terms are of unknown significance, although some strongly feel that they are evidence of the historical continuity of the term and the people as a linguistic unit since early times. This includes Chinese records Spring paper and Autumn Annals referring to a neighbouring people as beidi.
The cossacks writing, letter to, turkish, khan
The, turkic peoples dissertation are a collection of ethno-linguistic groups of, central, eastern, northern and, western Asia as well as parts of, europe and. They speak related languages belonging to the, turkic language family. 31, they share, to varying degrees, certain cultural traits, common ancestry and historical backgrounds. In time, different Turkic groups came in contact with other ethnicities, absorbing them, leaving some turkic groups more diverse then the others. Many vastly differing ethnic groups have throughout history become part of the turkic peoples through language shift, acculturation, intermixing, adoption and religious conversion. In their genetic compositions, therefore, most Turkic groups differ significantly in origins from one group to the next. Despite this, many do share, to varying degrees, non-linguistic characteristics, including certain cultural traits, some ancestry from a common gene pool, and historical experiences.