In Europe new republics appeared in the late middle Ages when a number of small states embraced republican systems of government. These were generally small, but wealthy, trading states, like the Italian city-states and the hanseatic league, in which the merchant class had risen to prominence. Knud haakonssen has noted that, by the renaissance, europe was divided with those states controlled by a landed elite using being monarchies and those controlled by a commercial elite being republics. 18 Across Europe a wealthy merchant class developed in the important trading cities. Despite their wealth they had little power in the feudal system dominated by the rural land owners, and across Europe began to advocate for their own privileges and powers. The more centralized states, such as France and England, granted limited city charters. In the more loosely governed Holy roman Empire, 51 of the largest towns became free imperial cities.
The commonwealth consisted of a number of clans run by chieftains, and the Althing was a combination of parliament and supreme court where disputes appealed from lower courts were settled, laws were decided, and decisions of national importance were taken. One such example was the Christianisation of Iceland in 1000, where the Althing decreed, in order to prevent an invasion, that all Icelanders must be baptized, and forbade celebration of pagan rituals. Contrary to most states, the Icelandic Commonwealth had no official leader. In the early 13th century, the Age of the Sturlungs, the commonwealth began to suffer from long conflicts between warring clans. This, combined with pressure from the norwegian king haakon iv for the Icelanders to re-join the norwegian "family led the Icelandic chieftains to accept haakon iv as king by the signing of the gamli sáttmáli old covenant in 1262. This effectively brought the commonwealth to an end. The Althing, however, is still Iceland's parliament, almost 800 years later. 36 Mercantile republics edit giovanni battista tiepolo, neptune offers the wealth of the sea to venice, 17481750. This painting is an allegory using of the power of the republic of Venice.
27 Similarly the Igbo nation of what is now Nigeria. 28 Indian subcontinent edit The ancient Indian subcontinent had a number of early republics among Mahajanapadas. 29 Mahajanapadas were 16 in number and consisted of both oligarchic republics and monarchies, of which Magadh eventually became the most powerful Mahajanapada and founded Magadhan Empire and these mahajanapadas existed during the sixth centuries bce to fourth centuries bce. 30 31 Some Indian scholars, such. Jayaswal, have argued that a number of states in ancient India had republican forms of government. While there are no surviving constitutions or works of political philosophy from this period in Indian history, surviving religious texts do refer to a number of states having sabhās or gaṇa sangha, a type of republic or council-based, as opposed to monarchical, government. Ancient Greek writers mention Alexander the Great encountering city states and regions where a council of elders ruled with paramount authority. 35 Icelandic Commonwealth edit The Icelandic Commonwealth was established in 930 ad by refugees from Norway who had fled the unification of that country under King Harald fairhair.
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Over time, the classical republics were either conquered by empires or became ones themselves. Most of the Greek republics were annexed to the macedonian Empire of Alexander. The roman Republic expanded dramatically conquering the other states of the mediterranean that could be considered republics, such as Carthage. The roman Republic itself then became the roman Empire. Other ancient republics edit The term "republic" is not commonly used to refer to pre-classical city states, especially if outside europe and the area which was under Graeco-roman influence.
16 However some early states outside europe had governments that are sometimes today considered similar to republics. In the ancient near East, a number of cities of the eastern Mediterranean achieved collective rule. Arwad has been cited as one of the earliest known examples of a republic, in which the people, rather than spiritual a monarch, are described as sovereign. The Israelite confederation of the era before the United Monarchy has also been considered a type of republic. 16 26 In Africa the Axum Empire was organized as a confederation ruled similarly to a royal republic.
21 22 nevertheless, there are a number of states of the classical era that are today still called republics. This includes ancient Athens and the roman Republic. While the structure and governance of these states was very different from that of any modern republic, there is debate about the extent to which classical, medieval, and modern republics form a historical continuum. Pocock has argued that a distinct republican tradition stretches from the classical world to the present. 16 23 Other scholars disagree.
16 paul Rahe, for instance, argues that the classical republics had a form of government with few links to those in any modern country. 24 The political philosophy of the classical republics have in any case had an influence on republican thought throughout the subsequent centuries. Philosophers and politicians advocating for republics, such as Machiavelli, montesquieu, adams, and Madison, relied heavily on classical Greek and Roman sources which described various types of regimes. Aristotle 's Politics discusses various forms of government. One form Aristotle named politeia, which consisted of a mixture of the other forms. He argued that this was one of the ideal forms of government. Polybius expanded on many of these ideas, again focusing on the idea of mixed government. The most important Roman work in this tradition is Cicero's de re publica.
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The term can quite literally be translated as "public matter". 16 It was most often used by roman writers to essay refer to the state and government, even during the period of the roman Empire. 17 In subsequent centuries, the English mom word " commonwealth " came to be used as a translation of res publica, and its use in English was comparable to how the romans used the term res publica. 18 Notably, during The Protectorate of Oliver Cromwell the word commonwealth was the most common term to call the new monarchless state, but the word republic was also in common use. 19 likewise, in Polish the term was translated as rzeczpospolita, although the translation is now only used with respect to poland. Presently, the term "republic" commonly means a system of government which derives its power from the people rather than from another basis, such as heredity or divine right. 20 History edit While the philosophical terminology developed in classical Greece and Rome, as already noted by Aristotle there was already a long history of city states with a wide variety of constitutions, not only in Greece but also in the middle east. After the classical period, during the middle Ages, many free cities developed again, such as Venice. Classical republics edit main article: Classical republic The modern type of "republic" itself is different from any type of state found in the classical world.
Also amongst classical Latin, the term "republic" can be used in a general way to refer to any regime, or in a specific way to refer to governments which work for the public good. Citation needed In medieval Northern Italy, a number of city states had commune or signoria based governments. In the late middle Ages, writers such as giovanni villani began writing body about the nature of these states and the differences from other types of regime. They used terms such as libertas populi, a free people, to describe the states. The terminology changed in the 15th century as the renewed interest in the writings of Ancient Rome caused writers to prefer using classical terminology. To describe non-monarchical states writers, most importantly leonardo Bruni, adopted the latin phrase res publica. 15 While Bruni and Machiavelli used the term to describe the states of Northern Italy, which were not monarchies, the term res publica has a set of interrelated meanings in the original Latin.
the United States Constitution "guarantees to every State in this Union a republican form of government". 12 In contrast, the former soviet Union, which described itself as being a group of "Republics" and also as a "federal multinational state composed of 15 republics was widely viewed as being an authoritarian form of government and not as a republican form of government. It was seen as authoritarian, as its electoral system was structured so as to automatically guarantee the election of government-sponsored candidates. 13 Contents Etymology edit The term originates as the latin translation of Greek word politeia. Cicero, among other Latin writers, translated politeia as res publica and it was in turn translated by renaissance scholars as "republic" (or similar terms in various western European languages). Citation needed The term politeia can be translated as form of government, polity, or regime and is therefore not always a word for a specific type of regime as the modern word republic. One of Plato 's major works on political science was titled Politeia and in English it is thus known as The republic. However, apart from the title, in modern translations of The republic, alternative translations of politeia are also used. 14 However, in book iii of his Politics (1279) Aristotle was apparently the first classical writer to state that the term politeia can be used to refer more specifically to one type of politeia : "When the citizens at large govern for the public good.
While heads-of-state often tend to claim that they rule only by the "consent of the governed elections in some countries have been found to be held more for the purpose of "show" than for the actual purpose of in reality providing citizens with any genuine. 9, the term republic was first coined. 500 bc in Rome, but over time the term has undergone several changes in meaning. Initially the latin term res you publica signified the earlier "partial form of democracy" as found in Rome from. 500 bc until. In this early roman partial-democracy, the power of the aristocratic or patrician class who held all of the seats in the roman Senate, was checked by the institution of the consulship, whose two consul/vice-rulers were elected annually by the free citizens or plebes of Rome. The ancient Roman definition of the word differs from the modern use of the term, where no leadership positions are held to be restricted to only the "ruling class".
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This article is about the mattress form of government. For the political ideology, see. For other uses, see, republic (disambiguation). A republic latin : res publica ) is a form of government in which the country is considered a "public matter not the private concern or property of the rulers. The primary positions of power within a republic are not inherited. It is a form of government under which the head of state is not a monarch. In American English, the definition of a republic refers specifically to a form of government in which elected individuals represent the citizen body 2 and exercise power according to the rule of law under a constitution, including separation of powers with an elected head. 8, as of 2017, 159 of the world's 206 sovereign states use the word "republic" as part of their official names not all of these are republics in the sense of having elected governments, nor is the word "republic" used in the names of all.