59 The open access movement is motivated by the problems of social inequality caused by restricting access to academic research, which favor large and wealthy institutions with the financial means to purchase access to many journals, as well as the economic challenges and perceived unsustainability. 56 60 Stakeholders and concerned communities edit The intended audience of research articles is usually other researchers. Open access helps researchers as readers by opening up access to articles that their libraries do not subscribe. One of the great beneficiaries of open access may hazlitt be users in developing countries, where currently some universities find it difficult to pay for subscriptions required to access the most recent journals. 61 Some schemes exist for providing subscription scientific publications to those affiliated to institutions in developing countries at little or no cost. 62 All researchers benefit from open access as no library can afford to subscribe to every scientific journal and most can only afford a small fraction of them this is known as the " serials crisis ". 63 Open access extends the reach of research beyond its immediate academic circle.
As of December 2017, mandates have been registered by over 600 universities (including Harvard, mit, stanford, University college london, and University of Edinburgh) and over 100 research funders worldwide. 33 Motivations edit main article: Academic journal publishing reform Open access itself (mostly green and gratis) began to be sought and provided worldwide by researchers when the possibility itself was opened by the advent of Internet and the world Wide web. The momentum was further increased by a growing movement for academic journal publishing reform, and with it gold and libre. Electronic publishing created new benefits as compared to paper publishing but beyond that, it contributed to causing problems in traditional publishing models. The premises behind open access publishing are that there are viable funding models to maintain traditional peer review standards of quality while also making the following changes: Rather than making journal articles accessible through a subscription business model, all academic publications could be made free. 56 Rather than applying traditional notions of copyright to academic publications, they could be libre or "free to build upon". 56 An obvious advantage of open access journals is the free access to scientific papers regardless of affiliation with a subscribing library and improved access for the general public; this essay is especially true in developing countries. Lower costs for research in academia and industry has been claimed in the budapest Open Access Initiative, 57 although others have argued that oa may rise the total cost of publication, 58 and further increase economic incentives for exploitation in academic publishing.
45 In 1998, several universities founded the public Knowledge Project to foster open access, and developed the open-source journal publishing system Open journal Systems, among other scholarly software projects. As of 2010, it was being used by approximately 5,000 journals worldwide. 46 several initiatives provide an alternative to the American and English language dominance of existing publication indexing systems, including Index Copernicus (Polish Scielo (Portuguese, spanish) and Redalyc (Spanish). Policies and mandates edit main article: Open access mandate see also: Research funders and universities Many universities, research institutions and research funders have adopted mandates requiring their researchers to provide open access to their peer-reviewed research articles by self-archiving them in an open access repository. 47 Research councils uk spent nearly 60m on supporting their open access mandate between 2048 Some publishers and publisher associations have lobbied against introducing mandates. The idea of mandating self-archiving was mooted at least as early as 1998. 53 efforts have been focused on open access mandating by the funders of research: governments, 54 research funding agencies, 55 and universities. 47 The registry of Open Access Repository mandates and Policies (roarmap) is a searchable international database charting the growth of open access mandates.
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38 to find out if a publisher or journal has given a green light to author self-archiving, the author can check the publisher Copyright Policies and online Self-Archiving list 39 on the sherpa/romeo web site. Distribution and search technology edit see also: Scientific journal Electronic publishing like the self-archived green open access articles, most gold open access journal articles are distributed via the world Wide web, 1 due to low distribution costs, increasing reach, speed, and increasing importance for scholarly. Open source software is sometimes used for open access repositories, 40 open access journal websites, 41 and other aspects of open access provision and open access publishing. Access to online content requires Internet access, and this distributional consideration presents physical and sometimes financial barriers to access. Proponents of open access argue that Internet access barriers are relatively low in many circumstances, that efforts should be made to subsidize universal Internet access, whereas pay-for-access presents a relatively high additional barrier over and above internet access itself. Citation needed There are various open access aggregators that index open access journals or articles. Road 42 (the directory of Open Access scholarly resources) synthesizes information about open access journals and is a subset of the issn register.
The oalibrary provides open and free access to a large database of scientific research papers, covering all topics. 43 Users may browse to find open access journals by country or by subject. Sherpa/romeo lists international publishers that allow the published version of articles to be deposited in institutional repositories. The directory of Open Access journals (doaj) contains over 8,000 peer-reviewed open access journals of varying open access policies for searching and browsing 44 Open access articles can also often be found with a web search, using any general search engine or those specialized for. The Open Archives Initiative (OAI) book lists 2937 conforming repositories. Searching each open access repository individually is impractical. The resources in these repositories can be harvested, using the oai protocol and aggregated into online systems which in-turn provide access to millions of resources from a single online location.
Some have revenue from advertising, auxiliary services, membership dues, endowments, reprints, or a print or premium edition. Some rely, more than other journals, on volunteerism. Some undoubtedly use a combination of these means". Open access monographs are subsidized through a variety of means as well. Knowledge Unlatched and crowdsource funding in order to make a work available open access.
28 29 Open access repositories edit main article: Self-archiving Self-archiving, also known as green open access, refers to the practice of depositing articles in an open access repository, where it can be accessed for free. Repositories may be specific to an institution, a discipline (e.g. Arxiv a scholarly society (e.g. Mla 's core repository or a funder (e.g. Open access self-archiving was first formally proposed in by Stevan Harnad in his " Subversive proposal ". However, self-archiving was already being done by computer scientists in their local ftp archives in the 1980s, 37 later harvested into citeseer. Many publishers permit authors to self-archive in an open access repository, but may place restrictions on which version of the work may be shared and/or require an embargo period following the original date of publication. What is deposited can be either a preprint, or the peer-reviewed postprint either the author's refereed, revised final draft or the publisher's version of record. Some publishers require delays, or an embargo, on when a research output in a repository may be made open access.
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Citation needed There currently is a growing global debate regarding open access's ideology and paperless ethics and its related Article Processing Charge fees (APC) as they are being created and managed by academic journal and monograph publisher conglomerates together with some national and international academic institutions. One controversy is "double dipping where both authors and subscribers are charged. 25 Groups offering open access solutions clarification needed include the publishers for development and Research4Life projects and activities. Subsidized open access publications edit no-fee open access journals, also known as "platinum" or "diamond" 7 8 have no fees for readers and no article processing charges or publication fees for authors. 26 They use a variety of business models. As summarized by peter Suber: 27 "Some no-fee oa journals have direct or indirect subsidies from institutions like universities, laboratories, research centers, libraries, hospitals, museums, learned societies, foundations, or government agencies. Some have revenue from a separate line of non-oa publications.
18 7 8 The money might come from the author but more often comes from the author's research grant or interpretation employer. Some publishers will waive all or part of the fee for authors from less developed economies. Journals charging publication fees normally take various steps to ensure that editors conducting peer review do not know whether authors have requested, or been granted, fee waivers, or to ensure that every paper is approved by an independent editor with no financial stake in the. Citation needed While the payments are often incurred per article published (e.g. Bmc journals or plos one there are some journals that apply them per manuscript submitted (e.g. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics until recently) or per author ( peerJ ). As of June 2018, only 26 of journals in the directory of Open Access journals (doaj) required payment of article processing charges. A 2013 study showed this practice was higher in journals with a scientific or medical focus (43 and 47 respectively and lowest in journals publishing in the arts and humanities (0 and 4 respectively). 19 Traditionally, many academic journals levied page charges, long before open access became a possibility.
distinction between gratis open access and libre open access was added in 2006 by two of the co-drafters of the original boai. 13 Gratis open access refers to online access free of charge, and libre open access refers to online access free of charge plus some additional re-use rights. 13 Libre open access is equivalent to the definition of open access in the budapest Open Access Initiative, the bethesda Statement on Open Access Publishing and the berlin Declaration on Open Access to Knowledge in the Sciences and Humanities. The re-use rights of libre oa are often specified by various specific Creative commons licenses ; 14 these almost all require attribution of authorship to the original authors. 13 15 Open access publishing edit One option for authors who wish to make their work openly accessible is to publish in a journal or book that makes research output immediately available from the publisher. 16 This is sometimes referred to as gold open access. 1 There are many financial models for open access publications. 17 Open access can be provided by commercial publishers, who may publish open access as well as subscription-based journals, or dedicated open-access publishers such as Public Library of Science (plos) and biomed Central. Article processing charges edit see also: Publication fees In one model of open access, journals generate revenue by charging publication fees in order to make the work openly available at the time of publication.
3, academic articles (as historically seen in paper-based academic journals ) have been the main focus of the movement. Conventional (non-open access) journals cover publishing costs through access resume tolls such as subscriptions, site licenses or pay-per-view charges. Open access research is advanced by a range of distribution mechanisms and business models. These include: Self-archiving - green: After peer review by a journal, the author posts the same content the journal will be publishing to a web site controlled by the author, the research institution that funded or hosted the work, or which has been set. Open access journal : The publisher of the journal makes all articles and related content available for free on the journal's web site. Hybrid open access journals 11 at least partially funded by subscriptions, and only provide open access for those individual articles for which the authors (or research sponsor) pay a publication fee 10, advantages and disadvantages of open access have generated considerable discussion amongst researchers, academics. 12 reactions of existing publishers to open access journal publishing have ranged from moving with enthusiasm to a new open access business model, to experiments with providing as much free or open access as possible, to active lobbying against open access proposals.
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Open access logo, originally designed. Public Library of Science. Whilst no official open access logo exists, organizations are free to select the logo style that best supports their visual language. Other logos are also in use. Citation needed, open access oa ) refers to research outputs which are distributed online and free of cost or other barriers, 1 and possibly with the addition. Creative commons license to promote reuse. 1, open access can be applied to all forms of published research output, including peer-reviewed and non peer-reviewed academic journal articles, conference papers, theses, 2 advantages book chapters, 1 and monographs.