5 Bibliography 1: (Basis presentation hiv/aids)http www. Com/health/hiv-aids/DS00005 2: (What is hiv? Htm 3: (What is a retrovirus? htm 4: (Virus replication) http biology. htm 5: (The evolving genetics of hiv)http genetics. Org/original_news/news13 6: (HIV/aids medicines) http www. Hiv is the virus that causes aids (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome review a life-threatening disease.
2 pages, 974 words. The Essay on hiv and Aids Virus people cells., many more. But what is this hiv/aids virus? Hiv and aids are two stages of the same virus. Aids is the later stage, and most serious. When there are few cd 4 cells, there are few white dream cells to fight disease and help defend the body. Attempts at vaccines, which stimulate the immune cells in the body to mop up the virus or destroy. However, stem cell transplantations have always been dangerous and this has never been done before.
These medicines limit the production of hiv-molecules. They do not cure hiv/aids. 6 Natural immunity for hiv there is a small amount of people in the world who are naturally immune for hiv. People with two copies of the CCR5 delta32 gene are immune to HIV infection. The hiv-virus cannot enter the t-cells. Instead, the t-cells attack and disarm the hiv-molecules. 5 people who have this rare mutation could cure a hiv-patient by getting stem cell transplantation. The hiv-patient gets the stem cells injected in his marrow where they can divide. The stem cells will attack the virus and block it out of the human system.
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Without these smaller core proteins, the virus-molecules are unable to get out of the host cell. The third ones are fusion business inhibitors. The outer cell surface of the hiv-virus is covered with gp120 or gp41 proteins. These attach to the receptors of T-cells(host cell). Some fusion inhibitors target these proteins, other target the receptors on the host cell. Either strengths way, it prevents both cells to fusion with each other.
The fourth ones are integrase inhibitors. These prevent the integrase to cut the 3 ends. This causes the dna not to integrate with the dna of the host cell. The fifth ones are multidrug combinations. These are combinations of two or more medicines that have been mentioned.
34 T-cells are lymphocytes. These cells have a central role in the cell-mediated immunity. Hiv causes T-cells to practically self-destruct. The cells cannot attack other bacteria and viruses anymore. One who has aids runs faster risk of infection then one who has not.
An innocent flu can be fatal for a hiv-patient. How can hiv/aids be treated? For aids, there a five major types of medicines. The first are reverse Transcriptase inhibitors. These medicines keep the infected cells from copying the rna strands. The second ones are protease inhibitors. These medicines make sure that the long proteins dont get cut into smaller core proteins. This is the most important part of the whole replication-process.
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Introducing the genes of pathogens into cells is to use just the. Protease gpa cleaves long proteins into smaller core proteins. Those smaller core proteins are crucial in this whole process. Two rna strands and these three replication enzymes come together. The smaller core proteins now gather around these molecules and transfer the formed capsule through the plasmid membrane. From now on, the infected cell will keep producing these virus molecules. This causes more t-cells to get infected and.
Now the cell also contains mrna with this information. The mrna then migrates into the cytoplasm where building blocks for a new virus are synthesized. Here is where the protease comes in action. words, the Essay on Aids Vaccine cells Immune hiv. A combination of immune responses. Hiv can be transmitted as both words free virus and in infected cells. This may mean that both arms. 't necessary to infect a cell with all of the pathogen's genes; only one will. Dna vaccines Another strategy for.
rna-dna double helix. Now the integrase cuts the 3 at each end of the dna. This causes the dna to remain two sticky ends. Integrase transfers the dna and facilitates integration into the host cell. Now the host cell contains the genetic information of hiv in its dna. From now on, when dna replication occurs, the information of hiv is being replicated with.
The virus molecules leave the host cell and infect other cells. 3 Unlike normal viruses, hiv only small contains rna. Therefore, retroviruses cannot replicate themselves like normal viruses. Hiv always fuses with T-cells. These cells are a group of white blood cells known as lymphocytes. For a hiv-cell to fuse with the cell, it requires the presence of certain receptors on the cell surface. In this case, cd4 receptors and co-receptors such as ccr5 or cxcr4.
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2 pages, 787 words, this means that one who has hiv doesnt immediately have aids. If the virus is left undiagnosed and/or untreated it can attack the human immune system. If this happens hiv progresses to aids. 12 hiv is a retrovirus. Human genes gpa are primarily encoded by dna. The genes of a retrovirus are encoded by rna instead of dna. A normal virus contains dna, which means it can clone its self. The dna replicates by using enzymes of the host cell. This way the virus can replicate thousands of its self.