Rand described the inspiration as limited to specific ideas he had about architecture and "the pattern of his career". 8 She denied that Wright had anything to do with the philosophy expressed by roark or the events of the plot. 9 10 Rand's denials have not stopped commentators from claiming stronger connections between Wright and roark. 10 11 Wright equivocated about whether he thought roark was based on him, sometimes implying that he did, at other times denying. 12 Wright biographer Ada reviews louise huxtable described significant differences between Wright's philosophy and Rand's, and"d him declaring, "I deny the paternity and refuse to marry the mother." 13 Architecture critic Martin Filler said that roark resembles the Swiss-French modernist architect le corbusier more closely. 14 Peter keating edit In contrast to the individualistic roark, peter keating is a conformist who bases his choices on what others want. Introduced to the reader as roark's classmate in architecture school, keating does not really want to be an architect.
He shuts down the banner and commissions a final building from roark, a skyscraper that will serve as a monument to human achievement. Eighteen months later, the wynand building is under construction. Dominique, now roark's wife, enters the site to meet him atop its steel framework. Major characters edit howard roark edit In writing the character of Howard roark, rand was inspired by the architect Frank Lloyd Wright. Rand's stated goal in writing fiction was to portray her vision of an ideal man. 2 small 3 The character of Howard roark, the protagonist of The fountainhead, was the first instance where she believed she had achieved this. 4 roark embodies Rand's egoistic moral ideals, 5 especially the virtues of independence 6 and integrity. 7 The character of roark was at least partly inspired by American architect Frank Lloyd Wright.
Roark agrees in exchange for complete anonymity and keating's promise that it will be built exactly as designed. After taking a long vacation with Wynand, roark returns to find that keating was not able to prevent major changes from being made in Cortlandt's construction. Roark dynamites the project to prevent the subversion of his vision. Roark is arrested and his action is widely condemned, but Wynand decides to use his papers to defend his friend. This unpopular stance hurts the circulation of his newspapers, and Wynand's employees go on strike after Wynand dismisses toohey for disobeying him and criticizing roark. Faced with the prospect of closing the paper, wynand gives in and publishes a denunciation of roark. At his trial, roark makes a speech about the value of ego and integrity, and he is found not guilty. Dominique leaves Wynand for roark. Wynand, who has betrayed his own values by attacking roark, finally grasps the nature of the power he thought he held.
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Roark's unusual design includes a nude statue modeled on Dominique; toohey persuades Stoddard to sue roark for summary malpractice. Toohey and several architects (including keating) testify at the trial that roark is incompetent as an architect due to his rejection of historical styles. Dominique speaks in roark's defense, but he loses the case. Dominique decides that since she cannot have the world she wants, in which men like roark are recognized for their greatness, she will live entirely in the world she has, which shuns roark and praises keating. She marries keating and turns herself over to him, doing and saying whatever he wants, such as persuading potential clients to hire him instead of roark.
To win keating a prestigious commission offered by gail Wynand, the owner and editor-in-chief of the banner, dominique agrees to sleep with Wynand. Wynand is so strongly attracted to dominique that he pays keating to divorce her, after which Wynand and Dominique are married. Wanting to build a home for himself and his new wife, wynand discovers that roark designed every building he likes and so hires him. Roark and Wynand become close friends; Wynand is unaware of roark's past relationship with Dominique. Washed up and out of the public eye, keating pleads with toohey to use his influence to get the commission for the much-sought-after Cortlandt housing project. Keating knows his most successful projects were aided by roark, so he asks for roark's help in designing Cortlandt.
After Cameron retires, keating hires roark, whom Francon soon fires for refusing to design a building in the classical style. Roark works briefly at another firm, then opens his own office but has trouble finding clients and closes it down. He gets a job in a granite quarry owned by Francon. There he meets Francon's daughter Dominique, a columnist for. The new York banner, while she is staying at her family's estate nearby. They are immediately attracted to each other, leading to a rough sexual encounter that Dominique later calls a rape.
1, shortly after, roark is notified that a client is ready to start a new building, and he returns to new York. Dominique also returns to new York and learns roark is an architect. She attacks his work in public, but visits him for secret sexual encounters. Toohey, who writes a popular architecture column in the banner, is an outspoken socialist who shapes public opinion through his column and a circle of influential associates. Toohey sets out to destroy roark through a smear campaign. He recommends roark to hopton Stoddard, a wealthy acquaintance who wants to build a temple of the human Spirit.
Herbert Spencer - wikipedia
Ivo van hove created a mba stage adaptation, which has received mostly positive reviews. Contents, in early 1922, howard roark is expelled from the architecture department of the Stanton Institute of Technology because he will not adhere to the school's preference for historical convention in building design. New York city and gets a job with Henry cameron. Cameron was once a renowned architect, but now gets few commissions. In the meantime, roark's paper popular, but vacuous, school roommate peter keating (whom roark sometimes helped with projects) graduates with high honors. He too moves to new York, where he has been offered a position with the prestigious architecture firm, Francon heyer. Keating ingratiates himself with senior partner guy francon and works to remove rivals within his firm. Eventually, he is made a partner. Meanwhile, roark and Cameron create inspired work, but struggle financially.
The novel has been adapted into other media several times. An illustrated version was syndicated in newspapers in 1945. Produced a film version in 1949; Rand wrote the screenplay, and. Gary cooper played roark. Critics panned the film, which did not recoup its budget; several directors and writers have considered developing a new film adaptation. In 2014, belgian theater director.
The novel's most controversial character is roark's lover, dominique francon. She believes that non-conformity has no chance of winning, so she alternates between helping roark and working to undermine him. Feminist critics have condemned roark and Dominique's first sexual encounter, accusing Rand of endorsing rape. Twelve publishers rejected the manuscript before an editor at the. Bobbs-Merrill Company risked his job to get internet it published. Contemporary reviewers' opinions were polarized. Some praised the novel as a powerful paean to individualism, while others thought it overlong and lacking sympathetic characters. Initial sales were slow, but the book gained a following by word of mouth and became a bestseller.
The fountainhead - wikipedia
For other uses, see. The fountainhead is a 1943 novel by russian-American author. Ayn Rand, her first major literary success. The novel's protagonist, howard roark, is an individualistic young architect who designs modernist buildings and refuses to compromise with an architectural establishment unwilling to accept innovation. Roark embodies what Rand believed to be the ideal man, and his struggle reflects Rand's belief that individualism is superior to collectivism. Roark is opposed by what he calls "second-handers who value conformity over independence and integrity. These include roark's former classmate, peter keating, who succeeds by following popular styles, but turns to roark for help with design problems. Ellsworth toohey, a socialist architecture critic who uses his influence for to promote his political and social agenda, tries to destroy roark's career. Tabloid newspaper publisher gail Wynand seeks to shape popular opinion; he befriends roark, then betrays him when public opinion turns in a direction he cannot control.