64 he genetically engineered a new species of Pseudomonas bacteria the oil -eating bacteria in 1971. United States Supreme court granted Chakrabarty's invention patent even though it was a living species. The court ruling decreed that Chakrabarty's discovery was "not nature's handiwork, but his own." The inventor Chakrabarty secured his patent in 1980 72 (see diamond. Chakrabarty ) Games edit map showing origin and diffusion of chess from India to Asia, africa, and Europe, and the changes in the native names of the game in corresponding places and time. Chaturanga : The precursor of chess originated in India during the gupta dynasty (c. Both the persians and Arabs ascribe review the origins of the game of Chess to the Indians. The words for "chess" in Old Persian and Arabic are chatrang and shatranj respectively — terms derived from caturaga in Sanskrit, 79 80 which literally means an army of four divisions or four corps. 81 82 Chess spread throughout the world and many variants of the game soon began taking shape.
59 Such a configuration made it suitable for the warm climate of most of India where people used to ride horses barefoot. 59 A pair of megalithic double bent iron bars with curvature at each end, excavated in Junapani in the central Indian state of Madhya pradesh have been regarded as stirrups although they could as well be something else. 60 Buddhist carvings in the temples of Sanchi, mathura and the Bhaja caves dating back between the 1st and 2nd century bce figure horsemen riding with elaborate saddles with feet slipped under girths. Sir John Marshall described the sanchi relief as "the earliest example by some five centuries of the use of stirrups in any part of the world". 63 In the 1st century ce horse riders in northern India, where winters are sometimes long and cold, were recorded to have their booted feet attached to hooked stirrups. 58 However the form, the conception of the primitive indian stirrup spread west and east, gradually evolving into the stirrup of today. 59 62 Genetics edit Pseudomonas putida :Indian (Bengali) dubai inventor and microbiologist Ananda mohan Chakrabarty created a species of man made micro organism to break down crude oil.
A very effective early shampoo was made by boiling Sapindus with dried Indian gooseberry (aamla) and a few other herbs, using the strained extract. Sapindus, also known as soapberries or soapnuts, is called Ksuna (Sanskrit: ) 50 in ancient Indian texts and its fruit pulp contain saponins, a natural surfactant. The extract of Ksuna, creates a lather which Indian texts identify as phenaka (Sanskrit: 51 leaves the hair soft, shiny and manageable. Other products used for hair cleansing were shikakai ( Acacia concinna soapnuts ( Sapindus hibiscus flowers, 52 53 ritha ( Sapindus mukorossi ) and arappu (Albizzia amara). 54 Guru nanak, the founding prophet and the first Guru of sikhism, made references to soapberry tree and soap in 16th century. 55 Washing of hair and body massage (champu) during a daily strip wash was an indulgence of early colonial traders in India. When they returned to europe, they introduced their newly learnt habits, including the hair treatment they called shampoo. 56 toe stirrup : The earliest known manifestation of the stirrup, which was a toe loop that held the big toe was used in India in as early as 500 bce 57 or perhaps by 200 bce according to other sources. 58 59 This ancient stirrup consisted of a looped rope for the big toe which was at the bottom of a saddle made of fibre or leather.
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Murty, a type of Lateral Shearing Interferometer utilizes a laser source for measuring refractive index. 43 44 Mysorean rockets : The first iron-cased and metal-cylinder rockets were developed by tipu sultan, ruler of the south Indian Kingdom of Mysore, and his father haither Ali, in the 1780s. He successfully used these iron-cased rockets against the larger forces of the British East India company during the Anglo-mysore wars. The mysore rockets of this period were much more advanced than what phones the British had seen, chiefly because of the use of iron tubes for holding the propellant; this enabled higher thrust and longer range for the missile (up to 2 km range). After Tipu's eventual defeat in the fourth Anglo-mysore war and the capture of the mysore iron rockets, they were influential in British rocket development, inspiring the congreve rocket, and were soon put into use in the napoleonic Wars. 45 The Great Stupa at Sanchi (4th-1st century bce). The dome shaped stupa was used in India as a commemorative monument associated with storing sacred relics.
Reversible inhibition of sperm under guidance : risug, formerly referred to as the synthetic polymer styrene maleic anhydride ( sma is the development name of a male contraceptive injection developed at iit kharagpur in India by the team. Phase iii clinical trials are underway in India, slowed by insufficient volunteers. 46 It has been patented in India, china, bangladesh, and the United States. 46 A method based on risug, vasalgel, is currently under development in the. 47 Shampoo : The word shampoo in English is derived from Hindustani chāmpo ( tʃãpo 48 and dates to 1762. 49 a variety of herbs and their extracts were used as shampoos since ancient times in India.
25 seamless celestial globe : Considered one of the most remarkable feats in metallurgy, it was invented in India in between. 26 27 Before they were rediscovered in the 1980s, it was believed by modern metallurgists to be technically impossible to produce metal globes without any seams, even with modern technology. 27 27 Computers and programming languages edit Science and Technology edit Plough : The earliest known instance of a ploughed field was found at Kalibangan 32 India ink : Known in Asia since the third millennia bce, and used in India since at least the. 33 Masi, an early ink in India was an admixture of several chemical components. 33, with the carbon black from which India ink is produced obtained by burning bones, tar, pitch, and other substances.
Documents dating to the 3rd century ce, written in Kharosthi, with ink have been unearthed in East Turkestan, xinjiang. 37 The practice of writing with ink and a sharp pointed needle was common in ancient south India. 38 several jain sutras in India were compiled in ink. 39 Iron and mercury coherer : In 1899, the bengali physicist Sir Jagdish Chandra bose announced the development of an " iron-mercury-iron coherer with telephone detector " in a paper presented at the royal Society, london. 40 he also later received. Patent 755,840, " Detector for electrical disturbances " (1904 for a specific electromagnetic receiver. Microwave communication : The first public demonstration of microwave transmission was made by jagadish Chandra bose, in Calcutta, in 1895, two years before a similar demonstration by marconi in England, and just a year after Oliver Lodge 's commemorative lecture on Radio communication, following Hertz's. Bose's revolutionary demonstration forms the foundation of the technology used in mobile telephony, radars, satellite communication, radios, television broadcast, wifi, remote controls and countless other applications. 41 42 Murty Shearing Interferometer : Invented.
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19 In this system, high-purity wrought iron, charcoal, and way glass were mixed in a crucible and heated until the restaurant iron melted and absorbed the carbon. 19 Close-up of wootz steel, pioneering steel alloy matrix developed in India. Wootz steel : wootz steel is an ultra-high carbon steel and the first form of crucible steel manufactured by the applications and use of nanomaterials in its microstructure and is characterised by its ultra-high carbon content exhibiting properties such as superplasticity, high impact hardness and. 20 Archaeological and Tamil language literary evidence suggests that this manufacturing process was already in existence in south India well before the common era, with wootz steel exported from the Chera dynasty and called Seric Iron in Rome, and later known as Damascus steel. Reproduction research is currently being undertaken by various scientists like. Oleg Sherby and. Jeff Wadsworth and Lawrence livermore national Laboratory have all done research, attempting to create steels with characteristics similar to wootz, but without success. D verhoeven and Al Pendray attained some success in the reconstruction methods of production, proved the role of impurities of ore in the pattern creation, and reproduced wootz steel with patterns microscopically and visually identical to one of the ancient blade patterns.
12 13 Incense clock : The incense clock is a timekeeping device used to measure minutes, hours, or days, incense clocks were commonly used at homes and temples in dynastic times. Although popularly associated with China the incense clock is believed to have originated in India, at least in its fundamental form if not function. 14 15 Early incense clocks found in China between the 6th and 8th centuries ce—the period it appeared in China all seem to have devanāgarī carvings on them instead of Chinese seal characters. 14 15 Incense itself was introduced to China from India in the early centuries ce, along with the spread of Buddhism by traveling monks. Edward Schafer asserts that incense clocks were probably an Indian invention, transmitted to China, which explains the devanāgarī inscriptions on early incense clocks found in China. 14 Silvio bedini on the other hand asserts that incense clocks were derived in part from incense seals mentioned in Tantric Buddhist scriptures, which first came to light in China after those scriptures from India were translated into Chinese, but holds that the time-telling function. 15 Metallurgy and Metals manufacturing edit Crucible steel essay : Perhaps as early as 300 bc—although certainly by 200 bc—high quality steel was being produced in southern India, by what Europeans would later call the crucible technique.
toilet : toilets platforms above drains, in the proximity of wells, are found in several houses of the cities of Mohenjodaro and Harappa from the 3rd millennium. 7 Metrology edit ruler : Rulers made from ivory were in use by the Indus Valley civilization in what today is pakistan and Northwestern India prior to 1500 BCE. 8 Excavations at Lothal (2400 BCE) have yielded one such ruler calibrated to about 1/16 of an inch—less than 2 millimeters. 8 Ian Whitelaw (2007) holds that 'The mohenjodaro ruler is divided into units corresponding.32 inches (33.5 mm) and these are marked out in decimal subdivisions with amazing accuracy—to within.005 of an inch. They correspond closely with the "hasta" increments of 1 3/8 inches traditionally used in south India in ancient architecture. Ancient bricks found throughout the region have dimensions that correspond to these units.' 9 Shigeo iwata (2008) further writes 'The minimum division of graduation found in the segment of an ivory-made linear measure excavated in Lothal was.79 mm (that corresponds to 1/940 of a fathom. 10 weighing scale : The earliest evidence for the existence of weighing scale dates to 2400 bc-1800 bc in the Indus valley civilization prior to which no banking was performed due to lack of scales. 11 Crescograph : The crescograph, a device for measuring growth in plants, was invented in the early 20th century by the bengali scientist Sir Jagadish Chandra bose.
2 Stepwell : Earliest clear evidence of the origins of the stepwell is found in the Indus Valley civilization's archaeological site at Mohenjodaro in pakistan 3 and Dholavira in India. 4 The three features of stepwells in the subcontinent are evident from one particular site, abandoned by 2500 bce, which combines a bathing pool, dream steps leading down to water, and figures of some religious importance into one structure. 3 The early centuries immediately before the common era saw the buddhists and the jains of India adapt the stepwells into their architecture. 3 Both the wells and the form of ritual bathing reached other parts of the world with Buddhism. 3 Rock-cut step wells in the subcontinent date from 200 to 400. 5 Subsequently, the wells at Dhank (550-625 CE) and stepped ponds at Bhinmal (850-950 CE) were constructed. 5 Stupa : The origin of the stupa can be traced to 3rd-century bce india.
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From wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, jump to navigation, jump to search. This list of Indian inventions and discoveries details the inventions, scientific discoveries and contributions of ancient and modern India, including both the ancient and medieval nations in the subcontinent historically referred to as India and the modern Indian state. It draws from the whole cultural and technological history of India, during which architecture, mattress astronomy, cartography, metallurgy, logic, mathematics, metrology and mineralogy were among the branches of study pursued by its scholars. During recent times science and technology in the republic of India has also focused on automobile engineering, information technology, communications as well as research into space and polar technology. For the purposes of this list, inventions are regarded as technological firsts developed in India, and as such does not include foreign technologies which India acquired through contact. It also does not include technologies or discoveries developed elsewhere and later invented separately in India, nor inventions by Indian emigres in other places. Changes in minor concepts of design or style and artistic innovations do not appear on in the lists. Contents, inventions edit, see also: History of science and technology in the Indian subcontinent, list of inventions and discoveries of the Indus Valley civilization, and Timeline of Indian innovation Construction, civil engineering and Architecture edit Iron pillar of Delhi :The world's first iron pillar was. 1 The pillar has attracted attention of archaeologists and materials scientists and has been called "a testament to the skill of ancient Indian blacksmiths" because of its high resistance to corrosion.